THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, USA

An Online Journal of Political Commentary & Analysis
Volume VI, Issue # 184, August 18, 2004
Dr. Almon Leroy Way, Jr., Editor
Government Committed to & Acting in Accord with Conservative Principles
Ensures a Nation's Strength, Progress, & Prosperity
Home Page   Main Menu   Recent Articles   Site Map   Website Index   Issues & Controversies
  Cyberland University   Political Science, Philosophy, & History: Lectures   U.S. Constitution
  American Constitutional Law   American Constitutional System   American Political System
  Conservatism, Liberalism, & Radicalism   How America Goes to War
  World War IV: Islamist Terror War Against the U.S.A. & the West

ISRAEL'S CREATION --THE UNTOLD STORY:
A BRIEFING BY DANIEL MANDEL
By Dr. Daniel Mandel

FULL STORY:   Israel's creation depended heavily on the actions of H.V. Evatt, the enigmatic Australian statesman who served as President of the U.N. General Assembly at the time of Israel's admission to the United Nations. A brilliant jurist and Labor Attorney-General and External Affairs Minister, Evatt first came to international prominence as an architect of the U.N. Charter at the 1945 San Francisco Conference, which saw the world body established. The New York Times named him the "outstanding figure of the Conference."

Evatt then guided the 1947 Palestine partition plan through the U.N.; in so doing, he transformed the history of the modern Middle East. Yet researching his role is unusually difficult, because Evatt was a cagey individual who kept no diary, corresponded little and had a tendency to appropriate official papers. He was given to spying on his own bureaucracy and engineered friends and associates into positions of power. It was thus that he placed his confidante, Sam Atyeo, and a career diplomat, John Hood, to handle the Palestine brief when the British turned the mandate over to the United Nations.

THE CONTEXT
When Evatt became President of the General Assembly, the U.N. was still in its infancy and was invested with a lot of hope and respect by its then democratic majority. With Palestine turned over to the U.N., most governments were reluctant to deal with the problem. So, an investigative committee composed of representatives from eleven nations, including Australia, was dispatched to investigate.

When this committe reported back, it voted seven to three in favor of partition, with one abstention Australia. With his eyes on the U.N. Presidency, Evatt was fearful of alienating the Arab bloc. However, when he lost the vote that year, he was compensated with the Chairmanship of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Palestinian Question. As the pressures increased and the U.S. State Department maneuvered to torpedo partition, Evatt moved the competing proposals into two separate subcommittees. This allowed a detailed partition plan to be prepared unobstructed by the Arab states and their supporters.

PARTITION
Evatt's committee ended up recommending partition to the General Assembly, but only after the narrowest of defeats for an Arab proposal to refer the issue to the International Court of Justice. Evatt insisted on recommending partition before the end of the 1947 General Assembly session. On the last day of its session, November 29, 1947, the Assembly approved partition by a vote of 33 to 13, with 10 abstentions. With the Cold War emerging, this proved the last time that the two superpowers cooperated for years to come.

After Israel's emergence in May, 1948, Evatt opposed tenaciously Britain's efforts to prevent the entire British Commonwealth from recognizing Israel. In the end, Britain had to bow to the verdict of Israel's survival on the battlefield and in March, 1949, in the last week of Evatt's Presidency of the Assembly, Israel was admitted to the U.N.

THE IBNTERNATIONALIZATION OF JERUSALEM
The idea of internationalizing Jerusalem had been made an element of the partition plan, largely at Evatt's insistence. The reason for his insistence was domestic Australian politics: the Catholic vote, both in Australia as a whole and in his own political party, was highly influential, evidenced by the fact that 13 of his 20 cabinet colleagues were Catholic, and once the Vatican came out in favor of full internationalization, Catholic countries supported this stance.

Although Evatt saw that full internationalization would be very difficult to put into practice and recognized that a war had changed the landscape, he remained committed to the idea of internationalization. In discussion with the Israeli representative in Australia, he argued that internationalization would not harm Israel's interests; what mattered would be how much authority Israel obtained in the territory it sought.

Thus, Evatt introduced a resolution at the U.N. for Jerusalem's internationalization. The sight of Australia, a non-Catholic country, backing the Vatican position pressured Catholic countries into supporting it. However, Evatt's resolution, which contained a subtle clause requiring an international committee to meet in 12 months to review the issue, was omitted in subsequent bargaining. The result was that full internationalization was adopted, a position that is still advocated in many quarters and which has led most countries not to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

Evatt, perhaps more than anyone else, was responsible for the partition plan being navigated through the U.N. His role demonstrates the sometimes decisive part played by individuals in affecting the course of history and provides an insight into one of the reasons Jerusalem remains such a vexed issue to this day.


LINKS TO RELATED TOPICS:

The Israeli-Arab Conflict

The Middle East & the Arabs

Radical Islam & Islamic Terrorism

War & Peace in the Real World

Islamist Terrorist Attacks on the U.S.A.

Osama bin Laden & the Islamist Declaration of War
Against the U.S.A. & Western Civilization

Islamist International Terrorism &
U.S. Intelligence Agencies

U.S. National Security Strategy



The foregoing summary account of Dr. Daniel Mandel's address to the Middle East Forum was written by Matt Della, a researcher at the Middle East Forum.

Dr. Mandel is an associate director of the Middle East Forum. He earned his PhD from the University of Melbourne (Australia), where he is also a fellow. His articles have appeared in Australian and U.S. publications, including the Middle East Quarterly. He is the author of H.V. Evatt and the Establishment of Israel: The Undercover Zionist (London: Routledge, 2004). He addressed the Middle East Forum in Philadelphia on June 15, 2004.


Republished with Permission of the Middle East Forum
Reprinted from the Middle East Forum News
mefnews@meforum.org (MEF NEWS)
August 13, 2004





Return to Top of Page

Go to the WEBSITE INDEX

Return to Beginning of
THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, USA,
Public Issues & Political Controversies


Return to Beginning of
THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, USA
Most Recent Articles


Return to Beginning of
THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, USA,
Volume VI, 2004


Return to Beginning of
THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, USA,
Subject Matter Highlights


Return to POLITICAL EDUCATION Homepage

CONTACT & ACCESS INFORMATION




LINKS TO PARTICULAR ISSUES & SUBJECT MATTER CATEGORIES
TREATED IN THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, U.S.A.:

Africa: Black Africa * Africa: North Africa * American Government 1
American Government 2 * American Government 3 * American Government 4
American Government 5 * American Politics * Anglosphere * Arabs
Arms Control & WMD * Aztlan Separatists * Big Government
Black Africa * Bureaucracy * Canada * China * Civil Liberties * Communism
Congress, U.S. * Conservative Groups * Conservative vs. Liberal
Constitutional Law Counterterrorism * Criminal Justice * Disloyalty * Economy
Education * Elections, U.S. * Eminent Domain * Energy & Environment
English-Speaking World * Ethnicity & Race * Europe * Europe: Jews
Family Values * Far East * Fiscal Policy, U.S. * Foreign Aid, U.S. * France
Hispanic Separatism * Hispanic Treason * Human Health * Immigration
Infrastructure, U.S. * Intelligence, U.S. * Iran * Iraq * Islamic North Africa
Islamic Threat * Islamism * Israeli vs. Arabs * Jews & Anti-Semitism
Jihad & Jihadism * Jihad Manifesto I * Jihad Manifesto II * Judges, U.S. Federal
Judicial Appointments * Judiciary, American * Latin America * Latino Separatism
Latino Treason * Lebanon * Leftists/Liberals * Legal Issues
Local Government, U.S. * Marriage & Family * Media Political Bias
Middle East: Arabs * Middle East: Iran * Middle East: Iraq * Middle East: Israel
Middle East: Lebanon * Middle East: Syria * Middle East: Tunisia
Middle East: Turkey * Militant Islam * Military Defense * Military Justice
Military Weaponry * Modern Welfare State * Morality & Decency
National Identity * National Security * Natural Resources * News Media Bias
North Africa * Patriot Act, USA * Patriotism * Political Culture * Political Ideologies
Political Parties * Political Philosophy * Politics, American * Presidency, U.S.
Private Property * Property Rights * Public Assistance * Radical Islam
Religion & America * Rogue States & WMD * Russia * Science & Ethics
Sedition & Treason * Senate, U.S. * Social Welfare Policy * South Africa
State Government, U.S. * Subsaharan Africa * Subversion * Syria * Terrorism 1
Terrorism 2 * Treason & Sedition * Tunisia * Turkey * Ukraine
UnAmerican Activity * UN & Its Agencies * USA Patriot Act * U.S. Foreign Aid
U.S. Infrastructure * U.S. Intelligence * U.S. Senate * War & Peace
Welfare Policy * WMD & Arms Control


This is not a commercial website. The sole purpose of the website is to share with interested persons information regarding civics, civic and social education, political science, government, politics, law, constitutional law and history, public policy, and political philosophy and history, as well as current and recent political developments, public issues, and political controversies.



THE PROGRESSIVE CONSERVATIVE, USA
An Online Journal of Political Commentary & Analysis
Dr. Almon Leroy Way, Jr., Editor
Conservative & Free-Market Analysis of Government, Politics & Public Policy, Covering Political, Legal, Constitutional, Economic, Cultural, Military, International, Strategic, & Geopolitical Issues

POLITICAL EDUCATION, CONSERVATIVE ANALYSIS
POLITICS, SOCIETY, & THE SOVEREIGN STATE
Website of Dr. Almon Leroy Way, Jr.

Government, Politics, Public Policy, Legal Issues, Constitutional Law, Government & the Economy, Cultural Values, Foreign Affairs, International Relations, Military Defense & National Security, Geopolitics, Terrorism & Homeland Security, American National Interests, Political Systems & Processes, Political Institutions, Political Ideologies, & Political Philosophy